I Ging - or Book of Changes
The Richard Wilhelm translation
Penguin 1968


I Ging Shuo Gua

http://ctext.org/book-of-changes/shuo-gua

說卦 -ShuoGua

1 說卦: 昔者聖人之作《易》也,幽贊於神明而生蓍,參天兩地而倚數,觀變於陰陽而立卦,發揮於剛柔而生爻,和順於道德而理於義,窮理盡性以至於命。

Shuo Gua: Anciently, when the sages made the Yi, in order to give mysterious assistance to the spiritual Intelligences, they produced (the rules for the use of) the divining plant. The number 3 was assigned to heaven, 2 to earth, and from these came the (other) numbers. They contemplated the changes in the divided and undivided lines (by the process of manipulating the stalks), and formed the trigrams; from the movements that took place in the strong and weak lines, they produced (their teaching about) the separate lines. There ensued a harmonious conformity to the course (of duty) and to virtue, with a discrimination of what was right (in each particular case). They (thus) made an exhaustive discrimination of what was right, and effected the complete development of (every) nature, till they arrived (in the Yi) at what was appointed for it (by Heaven).

2 說卦: 昔者聖人之作《易》也,將以順性命之理,是以立天之道曰陰與陽,立地之道曰柔與剛,立人之道曰仁與義。兼三才而兩之,故《易》六畫而成卦。分陰分陽,迭用柔剛,故《易》六位而成章。

Shuo Gua: Anciently, when the sages made the Yi, it was with the design that (its figures) should be in conformity with the principles underlying the natures (of men and things), and the ordinances (for them) appointed (by Heaven). With this view they exhibited (in them) the way of heaven, calling (the lines) yin and yang; the way of earth, calling (them) the weak (or soft) and the strong (or hard); and the way of men, under the names of benevolence and righteousness. Each (trigram) embraced (those) three Powers; and, being repeated, its full form consisted of six lines. A distinction was made of (the places assigned) to the yin and yang lines, which were variously occupied, now by the strong and now by the weak forms, and thus the figure (of each hexagram) was completed.

3 說卦: 天地定位,山澤通氣,雷風相薄,水火不相射,八卦相錯。數往者順,知來者逆,是故《易》逆數也。

Shuo Gua: (The symbols of) heaven and earth received their determinate positions; (those for) mountains and collections of water interchanged their influences; (those for) thunder and wind excited each other the more; and (those for) water and fire did each other no harm. (Then) among these eight symbols there was a mutual communication. The numbering of the past is a natural process.; the knowledge of the coming is anticipation. Therefore in the Yi we have (both) anticipation (and the natural process).

4 說卦: 雷以動之,風以散之,雨以潤之,日以烜之,艮以止之,兌以說之,乾以君之,坤以藏之。

Shuo Gua: Thunder serves to put things in motion; wind to scatter (the genial seeds of) them; rain to moisten them; the sun to warm them; (what is symbolised by) Zhen, to arrest (and keep them in their places); (by) Dui, to give them joyful course; (by) Qian, to rule them; and by Kun, to store them up.

5 說卦: 帝出乎震,齊乎巽,相見乎離,致役乎坤,說言乎兌,戰乎乾,勞乎坎,成言乎艮。萬物出乎震,震東方也。齊乎巽,巽東南也,齊也者、言萬物之絜齊也。離也者、明也,萬物皆相見,南方之卦也。聖人南面而聽天下,嚮明而治,蓋取諸此也。坤也者、地也,萬物皆致養焉,故曰:致役乎坤。兌、正秋也,萬物之所說也,故曰:說言乎兌。戰乎乾,乾、西北之卦也,言陰陽相薄也。坎者、水也,正北方之卦也,勞卦也,萬物之所歸也,故曰:勞乎坎。艮、東北之卦也。萬物之所成終而所成始也。故曰:成言乎艮。

Shuo Gua: God comes forth in Zhen (to His producing work); He brings (His processes) into full and equal action in Xun; they are manifested to one another in Li; the greatest service is done for Him in Kun; He rejoices in Dui; He struggles in Qian; He is comforted and enters into rest in Kan; and He completes (the work of the year) in Zhen. All things are made to issue forth in Zhen, which is placed at the east. (The processes of production) are brought into full and equal action in Xun, which is placed at the south-east. The being brought into full and equal action refers to the purity and equal arrangement of all things. Li gives the idea of brightness. All things are now made manifest to one another. It is the trigram of the south. The sages turn their faces to the south when they give audience to all under the sky, administering government towards the region of brightness:--the idea in this procedure was taken from this. Kun denotes the earth, (and is placed at the south-west). All things receive from it their fullest nourishment, and hence it is said, 'The greatest service is done for Him in Kun.' Dui corresponds (to the west) and to the autumn,--the season in which all things rejoice. Hence it is said, 'He rejoices in Dui.' He struggles in Qian, which is the trigram of the north-west. The idea is that there the inactive and active conditions beat against each other. Kan denotes water. It is the trigram of the exact north,--the trigram of comfort and rest, what all things are tending to. Hence it is said, 'He is comforted and enters into rest in Kan. Zhen is the trigram of the north-east. In it all things bring to a full end the issues of the past (year), and prepare the commencement of the next. Hence it is said, 'He completes (the work of the year) in Zhen.'

6 說卦: 神也者、妙萬物而為言者也。動萬物者莫疾乎雷,橈萬物者莫疾乎風,燥萬物者莫熯乎火,說萬物者莫說乎澤,潤萬物者莫潤乎水,終萬物、始萬物者、莫盛乎艮。故水火相逮,雷風不相悖,山澤通氣,然後能變化,既成萬物也。

Shuo Gua: When we speak of Spirit we mean the subtle (presence and operation of God) with all things. For putting all things in motion there is nothing more vehement than thunder; for scattering them there is nothing more effective than wind; for drying them up there is nothing more parching than fire; for giving them pleasure and satisfaction there is nothing more grateful than a lake or marsh; for moistening them there is nothing more enriching than water; for bringing them to an end and making them begin again there is nothing more fully adapted than Zhen. Thus water and fire contribute together to the one object; thunder and wind do not act contrary to each other; mountains and collections of water interchange their influences. It is in this way, that they are able to change and transform, and to give completion to all things.

7 說卦: 乾,健也;坤,順也;震,動也;巽,入也;坎,陷也;離,麗也;艮,止也;兌,說也。
Shuo Gua: Qian is (the symbol of) strength; Kun, of docility; Zhen, of stimulus to movement; Xun, of penetration; Kan, of what is precipitous and perilous; Li, of what is bright and what is catching; Zhen, of stoppage or arrest; and Dui, of pleasure and satisfaction.

8 說卦: 乾為馬。坤為牛。震為龍。巽為雞。坎為豕。離為雉。艮為狗。兌為羊。

Shuo Gua: Qian (suggests the idea of) a horse; Kun, that of an ox; Zhen, that of the dragon; Xun, that of a fowl; Kan, that of a pig; Li, that of a pheasant; Zhen, that of a dog; and Dui, that of a sheep.

9 說卦: 乾為首。坤為腹。震為足。巽為股。坎為耳。離為目。艮為手。兌為口。

Shuo Gua: Qian suggests the idea of the head; Kun, that of the belly; Zhen, that of the feet Xun, that of the thighs; Kan, that of the cars; Li, that of the eyes; Zhen, that of the hands and Dui, that of the mouth.

10 說卦: 乾,天也,故稱乎父。坤,地也,故稱乎母。震一索而得男,故謂之長男。巽一索而得女,故謂之長女。坎再索而得男,故謂之中男。離再索而得女,故謂之中女。艮三索而得男,故謂之少男。兌三索而得女,故謂之少女。

Shuo Gua: Qian is (the symbol of) heaven, and hence has the appellation of father. Kun is (the symbol of) earth, and hence has the appellation of mother, Zhen shows a first application (of Kun to Qian), resulting in getting (the first of) its male (or undivided lines), and hence is called 'the oldest son.' Xun shows a first application (of Qian to Kun), resulting in getting (the first of) its female (or divided lines), and hence is called 'the oldest daughter.' Kan shows a second application (of Kun to Qian), resulting in getting (the second of) its male (or undivided lines), and hence is called 'the second son.' Li shows a second application (of Qian to Kun), resulting in getting the second of its female (or divided lines), and hence is called 'the second daughter.' Zhen shows a third application (of Kun to Qian), resulting in getting (the third of) its male (or undivided lines), and hence is called 'the youngest son.' Dui shows a third application (of Qian to Kun), resulting in getting (the third of) its female (or divided lines), and hence is called 'the youngest daughter.'

11 說卦: 乾為天,為圜,為君,為父,為玉,為金,為寒,為冰,為大赤,為良馬,為老馬,為瘠馬,為駁馬,為木果。

Shuo Gua: Qian suggests the idea of heaven; of a circle; of a ruler; of a father; of jade; of metal; of cold; of ice; of deep red; of a good horse; of an old horse; of a thin horse; of a piebald horse; and of the fruit of trees.

12 說卦: 坤為地,為母,為布,為釜,為吝嗇,為均,為子母牛,為大輿,為文,為眾,為柄,其於地也為黑。

Shuo Gua: Kun suggests the idea of the earth; of a mother; of cloth; of a caldron; of parsimony; of a turning lathe; of a young heifer; of a large waggon; of what is variegated; of a multitude; and of a handle and support. Among, soils it denotes what is black.

13 說卦: 震為雷,為龍,為玄黃,為旉,為大塗,為長子,為決躁,為蒼筤竹,為萑葦。其於馬也,為善鳴,為馵足,為作足,為的顙。其於稼也,為反生。其究為健,為蕃鮮。

Shuo Gua: Zhen suggests the idea of thunder; of the dragon; of (the union of) the azure and the yellow; of development; of a great highway; of the eldest son; of decision and vehemence; of bright young bamboos; of sedges and rushes; among horses, of the good neigher; of one whose white hind-leg appears, of the prancer, and of one with a white star in his forehead. Among the productions of husbandry it suggests the idea of what returns to life from its disappearance (beneath the surface), of what in the end becomes the strongest, and of what is the most luxuriant.

14 說卦: 巽為木,為風,為長女,為繩直,為工,為白,為長,為高,為進退,為不果,為臭。其於人也,為寡髮,為廣顙,為多白眼,為近利市三倍,其究為躁卦。

Shuo Gua: Xun suggests the idea of wood; of wind; of the oldest daughter; of a plumb-line; of a carpenter's square; of being white; of being long; of being lofty; of advancing and receding; of want of decision; and of strong scents. It suggests in the human body, the idea of deficiency of hair; of a wide forehead; of a large development of the white of the eye. (Among tendencies), it suggests the close pursuit of gain, even to making three hundred per cent in the market. In the end it may become the trigram of decision.

15 說卦: 坎為水,為溝瀆,為隱伏,為矯輮,為弓輪。其於人也,為加憂,為心病,為耳痛,為血卦,為赤。其於馬也,為美脊,為亟心,為下首,為薄蹄,為曳。其於輿也,為多眚,為通,為月,為盜。其於木也,為堅多心。

Shuo Gua: Kan suggests the idea of water; of channels and ditches (for draining and irrigation); of being hidden and lying concealed; of being now straight, and now crooked; of a bow, and of a wheel. As referred to man, it suggests the idea of an increase of anxiety; of distress of mind; of pain in the ears - it is the trigram of the blood; it suggests the idea of what is red. As referred to horses, it suggests the idea of the horse with an elegant spine; of one with a high spirit; of one with a drooping head; of one with a thin hoof; and of one with a shambling step. As referred to carriages, it suggests one that encounters many risks. It suggests what goes right through; the moon; a thief. Referred to trees, it suggests that which is strong, and firm-hearted.

16 說卦: 離為火,為日,為電,為中女,為甲胃,為戈兵。其於人也,為大腹。為乾卦,為鱉,為蟹,為蠃,為蚌,為龜。其於木也,為科上槁。

Shuo Gua: Li suggests the emblem of fire; of the sun; of lightning; of the second daughter; of buff-coat and helmet; of spear and sword. Referred to men, it suggests the large belly. It is the trigram of dryness. It suggests the emblem of a turtle; of a crab; of a spiral univalve; of the mussel; and of the tortoise. Referred to trees, it suggests one which is hollow and rotten above.

17 說卦: 艮為山,為徑路,為小石,為門闕,為果蓏,為閽寺,為指,為狗,為鼠,為黔喙之屬。其於木也,為堅多節。

Shuo Gua: Zhen suggests the emblem of a mountain; of a by-path; of a small rock; of a gateway; of the fruits of trees and creeping plants; of a porter or a eunuch; of the (ring) finger; of the dog; of the rat; of birds with powerful bills; among trees, of those which are strong, with many joints.

18 說卦: 兌為澤,為少女,為巫,為口舌,為毀折,為附決。其於地也,為剛鹵。為妾,為羊。

Shuo Gua: Dui suggests the emblem of a low-lying collection of water; of the youngest daughter; of a sorceress; of the mouth and tongue; of the decay and putting down (of things in harvest); of the removal (of fruits) hanging (from the stems or branches); among soils, of what is strong and salt; of a concubine; and of a sheep.



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