JAMES KENNEDY RUSSELL C.EBERHADT
Academic Press 2001
Keywords: sociality - intelligence - whatever this "intelligence" is, it arises from interactions among individuals - social animals: rules and norms of our communities - language: the medium of interpersonal communication - similarities between computer programs and minds - artificial intelligence: symbolic information - AI researchers assumed that cognition is something inside an individual's head - to socialise - modelling individuals in a social context, interacting with one another - We argue here against the view, widely held in cognitive science, of the individual as an isolated information processing entity -
There is something difficult about thinking of minds in populations. We are used to thinking of ourselves as autonomous thinkers, sometimes accepting beliefs and processes that others around us hold, but the most of the time figuring out things on our own. Our experience is that we are in control of our cognitive systems, perhaps with some exceptions, such as when we are surprised or overcome with emotions; we experience our thoughts as controlled and even logical.
Keywords: cognition - adaptive and dynamic nature of life in general, and of human intelligence - thinking: an aspect of our social nature - minds:"move" in a high dimensional abstract space. People navigate through a world of meaning -
THE TWO GREAT STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS: evolution and mind -
stochastic adaption - variation and selection - complex adaptive systems - ideas and other cultural symbols and patterns, called memes, act like genes; they evolve through selection, with mutation and recombination just like biological genes - evolution of raw abstractions - ideas have no existence independent of minds - mental representation - Our argument is that cultural evolution should be defined, not as operations on ideas, but as operations on minds - mental activity, intelligence, and culture - Bateson: criteria of mind - feedback: fundamental to mental processes - the map is not the same as the territory - we can capitalise on the intelligence, the mental power, of evolution to solve many kinds of problems. Once we understand the social nature of mental processes, we can capitalise on those as well - It appears to some thinkers that mind is a phenomenon on that occurs when human beings coexist in societies.
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