Tales of Time and Change - Keywords


cybernetics - autopoiesis - systemstheory
Selbstreferenz - feedback - Paradox

Derrida - la trace

Kulturtheorie, Beobachter, Beobachten von Beobachten,
Theorie des Beobachters (Heinz von Foerster),
Negation, Selbstreferenz, Rekursion
operationsfähigen Dialektik (Gotthard Günther)
Verständnis der Vernetzung
Positivsprache - Ontologie
Negativsprache - Reflexion

17 Das Wissen der Beobachter - Die Form
Kultur, Gesellschaft, Beobachter,
Unterscheidung, Operation, Handlung,

Beobachte Beobachter.
Nenne Kultur die Anerkennung der Position eines Beobachters unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Kontingenz dieser Position.
Nenne Gesellschaft den Anlass, die Art und Weise und das Ergebnis der Auseinandersetzung dieser Beobachter um ihre Position zueinander.
Nenne Wissen jeden Einsatz innerhalb dieser Auseinandersetzung.
Nenne Nichtwissen das Wissen um ein Nichtwissen.

18 Arithmetik
Zahl und Ordnung
Konstanten und Variablen
unmarkierter Zustand, Leere, Nichts.

42 Wiedereintritt Re-entry
Reentry Knoten
Oszillationen zwischen Markierung und Nichtmarkierung
Beobachtung der Unterscheidung als Zusammenhang
Theorem der konditionierten Koproduktion
Einführung von Selbstreferenz, Paradoxie und Zeit
Nichts: …reformuliert das Negativum dieses Fehlers als Positivität eines mitlaufenden nichtmarkierten Zustands, einer Leere, eines Nichts. Dieses Nichts ist jedoch keine metaphysische, sondern eine physikalische, nämlich elektrotechnische Grösse.
imaginärer Zustand

44 Der Text des Kalküls behandelt laufend das Problem des Wissens von Beobachtern, das als dieses Wissen nur auf einer Metaebene festgehalten werden kann, obwohl es dieses Wissen, alle Verschiebungen, Verkennung und Verkürzungen, aber auch Erweiterungen, Offenbarungen und Wiederholungen in Rechnung gestellt, doch zugleich den Beobachter reproduziert, gehe es nun um sein Leben, sein Bewusstsein oder seine Kommunikation. Im jeweils nächsten Schritt entdeckt man eine Aussage auf der Metaebene als Vollzug einer primären Operation.

Negation: Negation (auch Satzverneinung, äußere Verneinung, kontradiktorisches Gegenteil einer Aussage A ist diejenige Aussage ¬A, die genau dann wahr ist, wenn A falsch ist, und die genau dann falsch ist, wenn A wahr ist
Implikation : „Immer wenn a, dann b“.
Rekursivität: …dass sich eine Form zwischen zwei Negativitäten entfaltet, deren eine die leere Selbstreferenz des Subjekts und deren andere die unendliche Rekursion der Idee ist.
Beobachtung zweiter Ordnung
Positivsprachen und Negativsprachen: Diese Differenz hat Gotthard Günther eingeführt, um kognitive von volitiven Aspekten der Weltkonstruktion unterscheiden zu können: während Kognition festzustellen versucht, was festzustellen ist, d.h. mit Konstanten rechnet, versucht es die Volition mit dem Schaffen von Leerstellen die jeweils erst noch zu besetzen sind und mit unterschiedlichen und wechselnden Werten besetzt werden können. Baecker Nächste Gesellschaft 33
Zählen - Ordnen
Hierarchie – Heterarchie
Wiedereintritt – Re-entry

Everett Snakes 81
oral literature - immediacy of experience principle

Everett Snakes 263 :
270 The the immediacy of experience principle means that if you haven’t experienced something directly, your stories about it are largely irrelevant. This renders them relatively impermeable to missionary efforts based on stories of the long ago past that no one alive has witnessed. And this explains why they have resisted missionaries also long. Creation myths are no match for this demand for evidence

simplification - theory
pragmatics - utility
a life without absolutes, like righteousness or holiness and sin.
Piraha culture
cultural values

Ideas - Assumptions:

There's a notorious problem with defining information within physics, namely that on the one hand information is purely abstract, and the original theory of computation as developed by Alan Turing and others regarded computers and the information they manipulate purely abstractly as mathematical objects. Many mathematicians to this day don't realize that information is physical and that there is no such thing as an abstract computer. Only a physical object can compute things....

Constructor theory consists of a language in which to express other scientific theories—(Well, that can't be true or false. It can only be convenient or inconvenient)—but also laws. But these laws are not about physical objects. They're laws about other laws. They say that other laws have to obey constructor theoretic principles.
I want to introduce the terminology that laws about laws should be called
principles. A lot of people already use that kind of terminology, but I'd rather make it standardized....
Constructor theory is all about how it comes about. It just expresses this in a different language.
I'm not very familiar with the very popular idea of
cybernetics that came about a few decades ago, but I wouldn't be surprised if those ideas that proved at the time not to lead anywhere were actually an early avatar of constructor theory.
If so, we'll only be able to see that with hindsight, because some of the ideas of constructor theory are really impossible to have until you have a conceptual framework that is post quantum theory of computation, i.e., after the theory of computation has been explicitly incorporated into physics, not just philosophically. That's what the quantum theory of computation did.


Laws of Nature:
David Deutsch

Like all fundamental theories, it's difficult to predict what effect they will have precisely because they are going to change things at a fundamental level.
But there is one big thing that I'm pretty sure the
constructor theoretic way of looking at physics has to offer our worldview in terms of everyday life: and that is optimism. Optimism in my terminology doesn't mean expecting that things will turn out well all the time. It's this very specific thing that I think captures the historical, philosophical trend of what optimism has meant if you remove the nonsense. Namely, the optimistic view is not that problems will not occur, but that all problems and all evils are caused by lack of knowledge, and the converse of that is that all evils are soluble given the right knowledge. And knowledge can be found by the methods of conjecture, criticism, and so on that we know is the way of creating knowledge.

Although this sounds like a statement at a very human level, because it's about knowledge and evils and being able to do things and so on, it is directly linked with constructor theory at the most fundamental level because of the fundamental dichotomy in constructor theory, which claims that the whole of science is to be formulated in terms of the difference between transformations that are possible and those that are impossible, and there isn't a third possibility. That's the thing. The whole thing doesn't work if there's a third possibility.

Greek cosmology: lunar and sublunar realms:
Smolin 12:
The universe, for the ancients, was split into two realms: the earthly realm, which was the arena of birth and death, of change and decay, and the heavenly realm above, which was a place of timeless perfection. For them the sky was already a transcendental realm; it was populated by divine objects that neither grew nor decayed.
This was, after all, what they observed. Aristotle himself noted that “in the whole range of time past, so far as our inherited records reach, no change appears to have taken place either in the whole scheme of the outermost heaven or in any of its proper parts”.
If the objects in this divine realm were to move, these movements could only be perfect and thus eternal. To the ancients, it was evident that the planets move along a circle because, being divine and perfect, they could move only on the curve that was the most perfect. But the earthly realm is not perfect, so it might have seemed bizarre to them to describe motion on Earth in terms of perfect mathematical curves.
The division of the world into an earthly realm and heavenly spheres were codified in Aristotelian physics. Everything in the earthly realm was composed of mixtures of four elements: earth, water, air, fire. Each had a natural motion: the natural motion of earth, for example was to seek the centre of the universe. Change followed from the mixing of these four essences. Aether was the fifth element, the quintessence, which made up the heavenly realm and the objects that moved across it.
14 This division was the origin of the connection of elevation with transcendence. God, the heavens, perfection - these are above us, while we are trapped here below. From this perspective, the discovery that mathematical shapes are traced by motions in the sky makes sense, because both the mathematical and the heavenly are realms that transcend time and change. To know each of them is to transcend the earthly realm.
Mathematics, then, entered science as an expression of a belief in the timeless perfection of the heavens. Useful as mathematics has turned out to be, the postulation of timeless mathematical laws is never completely innocent, for it always carries a trace of the metaphysical fantasy of transcendence from our earthly world to one of perfect forms.

Tales of Time and Change